Windows Domain Network
Windows Server 2012 r2 standard
A Windows domain is a form of a computer network in which all user accounts, computers, printers and other security principals, are registered with a central database located on one or more clusters of central computers known as domain controllers. Authentication takes place on domain controllers.
When a computer is joined to a domain, it doesn’t use its own local user accounts. User accounts and passwords are managed on the domain controller. When you log into a computer on that domain, the computer authenticates your user account name and password with the domain controller. This means you can log in with the same username and password on any computer joined to the domain.